# Quipu, a simple Nelder Mead solver in F#

Some time back, I wrote a small post digging into the mechanics behind the Nelder Mead solver. As it turns out, I had a use for it recently, and after copy-pasting my own code a few times, I figured it would make my life easier to turn that into a NuGet package, Quipu.

So what does it do, and why might you care?

A code example might be the quickest explanation here. Suppose that, for whatever reason, you were interested in the function f(x) = x ^ 2, and wanted to know for what value of x this function reaches its minimum.

That is easy to solve with the Quipu Nelder-Mead solver:

open Quipu
open Quipu.NelderMead

let f x = x ** 2.0
let solution =
NelderMead.solve
Configuration.defaultValue
(Objective.from f) [ 100.0 ]
printfn $"{solution}"  … which produces the following result: Optimal (0.0001556843433, [|0.01247735322|])  The function f reaches a minimum of 0.0001, for x = 0.0124. NelderMead.solve expects 3 arguments: • The Configuration describes how the solver should behave, • The Objective is the function we are trying to minimize, • The starting value, [ 100.0 ], is our initial guess. Now the mathematically inclined reader might point out that surely, this is not correct. f reaches a minimum of 0.0, for x = 0.0. The Nelder-Mead algorithm is a numerical method which will produce an approximation for the answer. If the accuracy is insufficient, you can set up a tighter tolerance: let config = { Configuration.defaultValue with Termination = { Tolerance = 0.000_0001 MaximumIterations = None } } let closerSolution = NelderMead.solve config (Objective.from f) [ 100.0 ] printfn$"{closerSolution}"

Optimal (6.663562871e-08, [|0.000258138778|])


This is closer, and the minimum value, 6.663e-8, is within 0.000_0001, or 1e-07, of the correct answer, 0.0.

While we are discussing caveats, Nelder-Mead is not guaranteed to find the global minimum. It might give you a local minimum only.

So what would happen if we gave the solver a function that does not have a minimum, like f(x) = x?

let f x = x
let solution =
NelderMead.solve
Configuration.defaultValue
(Objective.from f) [ 100.0 ]
printfn $"{solution}"  Unbounded  The solver returns Unbounded as a solution, that is, the problem has no minimum. In circumstances where abnormal situations are encountered (for instance, nan value during the search), the solver will return Abnormal, with the values that caused the error. What if you had a more complicated function, say, g(x, y) = sin x * cos y? let g (x, y) = sin x * cos y let solution = NelderMead.solve Configuration.defaultValue (Objective.from g) [ 0.0; 0.0 ] printfn$"{solution}"

Optimal (-0.9995738601, [|-1.59440106; -0.01718172454|])


Note how the starting value is now [ 0.0; 0.0 ]. Because g expects 2 arguments, we need to provide an initial value for both.

Functions of 3 arguments follow the same pattern. After 4, you are on your own, and will need to do a little manual wrapping, converting the function into a form Objective.from can handle: (int: dimension, f: float [] -> float), like so:

// convert f(a,b,c,d) = sin a + cos b + (c * d) ^ 2
// into a function that takes an array of floats:
let h (args: float[]) =
sin args.[0] + cos args.[1] + (args.[2] * args.[3]) ** 2.0

// call Objective.from (4, h), where 4 is the dimension,
// that is, the number of arguments we expect in the array:
let solution =
NelderMead.solve
Configuration.defaultValue
(Objective.from (4, h)) [ 0.0; 0.0; 0.0; 0.0 ]
printfn \$"{solution}"

Optimal
(-1.99962865, [|-1.559102568; 3.117602262; 0.7363555181; 0.005298690767|])


And… that’s what I got at the moment! It is version 0.1.0 for a reason: it works on my machine, for the problem I needed it for. There is obviously quite a bit that can be improved around usability, too. So your mileage may vary, but it was useful to me, so I figured I would share!

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Full code here on GitHub

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